Some evidence supports the concept of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males. According to Money , genetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities.
Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully. Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them to complete rejection of heterosexuality.
Also, in a study, its authors stated that "There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: The article also stated: Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society.
That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones. Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex. Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization.
LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women. Bisexuals were found to have fewer personal insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals. This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other subjects. This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males.
In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology , women usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a genetic disposition connected to child bearing. Homosexual and bisexual women have been found to have a hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones.
While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women. The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality. Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date.
Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults. Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen.
Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D: It is suggested that exposure to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality. Because testosterone in general is important for sexual differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic.
The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites.
Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D: Several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy or erotic interest. Van Wyk and Geist found that male and female bisexuals had more sexual fantasy than heterosexuals. Dixon found that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men. Bisexual men masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals. Bressler and Lavender found that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women.
They also found that marriages with a bisexual female were happier than heterosexual unions, observed less instance of hidden infidelity, and ended in divorce less frequently. Goode and Haber found bisexual women to be sexually mature earlier, masturbate and enjoy masturbation more and to be more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.
Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation. Some who identify as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society. Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out.
Psychologist Beth Firestein states that bisexuals tend to internalize social tensions related to their choice of partners  and feel pressured to label themselves as homosexuals instead of occupying the difficult middle ground where attraction to people of both sexes would defy society's value on monogamy. Bisexual behaviors are also associated in popular culture with men who engage in same-sex activity while otherwise presenting as heterosexual.
In the U. Like people of other LGBT sexualities, bisexuals often face discrimination. In addition to the discrimination associated with homophobia , bisexuals frequently contend with discrimination from gay men, lesbians, and straight society around the word bisexual and bisexual identity itself. In the heterosexist view, people are presumed to be sexually attracted to the opposite sex, and it is sometimes reasoned that a bisexual person is simply a heterosexual person who is sexually experimenting.
Male bisexuality is particularly presumed to be non-existent,  with sexual fluidity studies adding to the debate. In , researchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L.click here
Defining Bisexuality | The Soulmates Blog
Chivers , and J. Michael Bailey used penile plethysmography to measure the arousal of self-identified bisexual men to pornography involving only men and pornography involving only women. Participants were recruited via advertisements in gay-oriented magazines and an alternative paper. They found that the self-identified bisexual men in their sample had genital arousal patterns similar to either homosexual or heterosexual men. The authors concluded that "in terms of behavior and identity, bisexual men clearly exist", but that male bisexuality had not been shown to exist with respect to arousal or attraction.
The authors said that this change in recruitment strategy was an important difference, but it may not have been a representative sample of bisexual-identified men. They concluded that "bisexual-identified men with bisexual arousal patterns do indeed exist", but could not establish whether such a pattern is typical of bisexual-identified men in general.
Bisexual erasure or bisexual invisibility is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in culture , history , academia , news media and other primary sources. There is increasing inclusion and visibility of bisexuals, particularly in the LGBT community.
A common symbol of the bisexual community is the bisexual pride flag , which has a deep pink stripe at the top for homosexuality, a blue one on the bottom for heterosexuality, and a purple one — blending the pink and blue — in the middle to represent bisexuality. Another symbol with a similarly symbolic color scheme is a pair of overlapping pink and blue triangles, forming purple or lavender where they intersect. This design is an expansion on the pink triangle , a well-known symbol for the homosexual community. Some bisexual individuals object to the use of a pink triangle, as it was the symbol that Hitler 's regime use to tag and persecute homosexuals.
In response, a double crescent moon symbol was devised specifically to avoid the use of triangles. Another symbol used for bisexuality is a purple diamond, conceptually derived from the intersection of two triangles, pink and blue respectively , placed overlapping. In Steve Lenius' original paper, he explored the acceptance of bisexuality in a supposedly pansexual BDSM community.
The reasoning behind this is that "coming-out" had become primarily the territory of the gay and lesbian, with bisexuals feeling the push to be one or the other and being right only half the time either way. What he found in , was that people in BDSM were open to discussion about the topic of bisexuality and pansexuality and all controversies they bring to the table, but personal biases and issues stood in the way of actively using such labels.
A decade later, Lenius looked back on his study and considered if anything has changed. He concluded that the standing of bisexuals in the BDSM and kink community was unchanged, and believed that positive shifts in attitude were moderated by society's changing views towards different sexualities and orientations. But Lenius does emphasize that the pansexual promoting BDSM community helped advance greater acceptance of alternative sexualities.
Simula explains that practitioners of BDSM routinely challenge our concepts of sexuality by pushing the limits on pre-existing ideas of sexual orientation and gender norms. For some, BDSM and kink provides a platform in creating identities that are fluid, ever-changing. Feminist positions on bisexuality range greatly, from acceptance of bisexuality as a feminist issue to rejection of bisexuality as reactionary and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism. A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict in feminism was the Northampton Pride March during the years between and , where many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism.
Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist , that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness , and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate. Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists.
Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men. Donna Haraway was the inspiration and genesis for cyberfeminism with her essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: The Reinvention of Nature Haraway's essay states that the cyborg "has no truck with bisexuality, pre-oedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or other seductions to organic wholeness through a final appropriation of all powers of the parts into a higher unity.
Therefore, I [the author] would say that cyborgs can be bisexual, and cyberfeminism can and should be accepting of bisexuality. Ancient Greeks and Romans did not associate sexual relations with well-defined labels, as modern Western society does.
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Men who had male lovers were not identified as homosexual, and may have had wives or other female lovers. Ancient Greek religious texts, reflecting cultural practices, incorporated bisexual themes. The subtexts varied, from the mystical to the didactic. Once the younger soldiers reached maturity, the relationship was supposed to become non-sexual, but it is not clear how strictly this was followed. There was some stigma attached to young men who continued their relationships with their mentors into adulthood.
Similarly, in ancient Rome , gender did not determine whether a sexual partner was acceptable, as long as a man's enjoyment did not encroach on another's man integrity. It was expected and socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the penetrative role. Both women and young men were considered normal objects of desire, but outside marriage a man was supposed to act on his desires only with slaves, prostitutes who were often slaves , and the infames.
It was immoral to have sex with another freeborn man's wife, his marriageable daughter, his underage son, or with the man himself; sexual use of another man's slave was subject to the owner's permission. Lack of self-control, including in managing one's sex life , indicated that a man was incapable of governing others; too much indulgence in "low sensual pleasure" threatened to erode the elite male's identity as a cultured person. Bisexuality tends to be associated with negative media portrayals; references are sometimes made to stereotypes or mental disorders. In an article regarding the film Brokeback Mountain , sex educator Amy Andre argued that in films, bisexuals are often depicted negatively: I like movies where bisexuals come out to each other together and fall in love, because these tend to be so few and far between; the most recent example would be 's lovely romantic comedy, Kissing Jessica Stein.
Most movies with bi characters paint a stereotypical picture In other words, the bisexual is always the cause of the conflict in the film. Using a content analysis of more than articles written between and , sociologist Richard N. Pitt, Jr. Alternatively, the white bisexual man is often described in pitying language as a victimized homosexual man forced into the closet by the heterosexist society around him. In the first documented appearance of bisexual characters female and male in an American motion picture occurred in A Florida Enchantment , by Sidney Drew.
Virginia Woolf 's Orlando: A Biography is an early example of bisexuality in literature. The story, of a man who changes into a woman without a second thought, was based on the life of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West. Woolf used the gender switch to avoid the book being banned for homosexual content. The pronouns switch from male to female as Orlando's gender changes.
Woolf's lack of definite pronouns allows for ambiguity and lack of emphasis on gender labels. Following Sackille-West's death, her son Nigel Nicolson published Portrait of a Marriage , one of her diaries recounting her affair with a woman during her marriage to Harold Nicolson. Other early examples include works of D. Lawrence , such as Women in Love , and Colette 's Claudine — series. Contemporary novelist Bret Easton Ellis ' novels, such as Less Than Zero and The Rules of Attraction frequently feature bisexual male characters; this "casual approach" to bisexual characters recurs throughout Ellis' work.
Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January , a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [ Queen singer Freddie Mercury was also open about his bisexuality, though did not publicly discuss his relationships.
In , Jill Sobule sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend. Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference. Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual,  and has acknowledged that her song " Poker Face " is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man.
Brian Molko , lead singer of Placebo is openly bisexual. I mean, it's something that I've always been interested in. I think people are born bisexual, and it's just that our parents and society kind of veer us off into this feeling of 'Oh, I can't. It's ingrained in our heads that it's bad, when it's not bad at all.
It's a very beautiful thing. There are these other feelings you may have about the same sex, the opposite sex, especially being in Berkeley and San Francisco then. People are acting out what they're feeling: And that opens up something in society that becomes more acceptable.
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Now we have gay marriage becoming recognized I think it's a process of discovery. I was willing to try anything. In the Netflix original series Orange is the New Black the main character, Piper Chapman , played by actress Taylor Schilling , is a bisexual female inmate who is shown having relationships with both men and women. Then, upon entering the prison, she reconnects with former lover and fellow inmate , Alex Vause , played by Laura Prepon.
The same network had earlier aired the television series The O. The Showcase supernatural crime drama, Lost Girl , about creatures called Fae who live secretly among humans, features a bisexual protagonist, Bo ,  played by Anna Silk. In the story arc she is involved in a love triangle between Dyson, a wolf- shapeshifter played by Kris Holden-Ried , and Lauren Lewis,  a human doctor played by Zoie Palmer in servitude to the leader of the Light Fae clan. Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harkness , a pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero.
Within the logic of the show, where characters can also interact with alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him. Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Jack with men than women.
For heterosexual character Gwen Cooper , for whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the new experiences she confronts at Torchwood , in the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self. In Episode 1 , heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to escape a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend. Quiet Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female alien and a male human. British newspaper The Sun ran the headline "Dr Ooh gets four gay pals" prior to the first series, describing all of Torchwood ' s cast as being bisexual.
Directed by bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner ,  the plot centers around a lesbian-identified woman who falls in love with a straight man and discovers she is actually bisexual. Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior. Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms. Many species of animals are involved in the acts of forming sexual and non-sexual relationship bonds between the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite sex, they pick the same sex.
Some of these species are gazelles , antelope , bison , and sage grouse. In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random. Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season.
LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity. For other uses, see Bisexual disambiguation. Sexual orientation. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main articles: Sexual orientation , Sexual identity , and Human sexual activity. Main article: Kinsey scale. Demographics of sexual orientation and Kinsey Reports. Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Further information: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation , Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation , and Innate bisexuality.
Biphobia and Bisexual erasure. See also: LGBT symbols. History of bisexuality. Media portrayals of bisexuality.
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List of LGBT characters in television and radio. Animal sexual behaviour. Homosexual behavior in animals. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 21 April American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 8 March Sex from Plato to Paglia: Greenwood Publishing Group. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. Pansexuality is also sometimes included under the definition of bisexuality, since pansexuality rejects the gender binary and encompasses romantic or sexual attractions to all gender identities.
In Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved 3 October In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships.
Consistency and change over time". Journal of Sex Research. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. Profile Books, Ltd. Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. July Unorthodox Sex in the Animal Kingdom". Scientific American.
Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 February American Psychological Association: Retrieved 15 May Sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events. Becoming Visible: Counseling Bisexuals Across the Lifespan.
Columbia University Press. Diversity of Identity and Experience". Journal of Bisexuality. Notes for a Bi Revolution. Seal Press. Developmental Psychology. New York Times. Retrieved 21 March Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original on 21 March Studies in Gender and Sexuality.
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New York: Oxford University Press. Straight Science: Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation. Routledge, , p. Oyster; Jane E. Sloan So, why are many lesbians so anti-bi? A new study recently published in the journal Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity suggests that this might be due to what the researchers call the androcentric desire hypothesis: The fact that people gay men and lesbians alike perceive bisexuals as being more sexually attracted to men than they are to women.
In both cases, the sexuality of bisexual women and men appears to be perceived as oriented toward men. In the latest study, lesbian women and gay men average age of 31; range: Confirming past research, lesbian women were more negative toward bisexuals than were gay men, and they were more negative toward bisexual women than gay men were toward bisexual men, in particular. Furthermore, as the graph below shows, the results mostly supported the androcentric desire hypothesis.
Lesbian and gay participants both agreed that bisexual men are significantly more attracted to men than they are to women, and lesbian women felt that this was true of bisexual women as well. The only exception to this pattern were gay men who felt bisexual women were equally attracted to men and women. In other words, lesbian women view bisexual women as being more sexually attracted to men than to women, which in turn makes them dislike bisexual women.
Yet, it adds to our understanding of prejudice toward queer sexualities within communities dominated by lesbian women and gay men. We need all sexual and gender minorities to work together as allies against those seeking to erase us all.