Socially oriented identity 3: Family-oriented identity A If possible, I would prefer to be a heterosexual. If I were a heterosexual, I would be happier. Although there are some ways to change my sexual orientation, I am reluctant to try. It is forbidden to reveal your sexual orientation in the civil service system. If you reveal your sexual orientation in the workplace, it will endanger your career.
In most situations, I do not care about whether other people know about my sexual orientation. I am worried that my sexual orientation will disgrace my family. I cannot do intimate things like heterosexual couples do in public. Most homosexuals will end up living alone. I cannot fulfill traditional filial piety, which makes me feel impious. Reliability The subscales exhibited high internal consistency. Associations With the Hypothesized Correlates This study tested the correlation between the CIHS and its subscale scores with the hypothesized correlates.
Table 3. Internalized heteronormativity Socially oriented identity Family-oriented identity Whole scale Sense of loneliness. Self-evaluation Lower self-evaluation was associated with greater homophobia in the whole scale and all subscales. Discrepancy in self-identification as a gay man Higher scores implied higher self-acceptance. Table 4.
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Table 5. Directions for Further Scale Evaluation and Improvement In the present study, the respondents were predominantly young, well-educated, urban-dwelling gay men; the sample likely underrepresents gay men who are older, rural, poor, and isolated. Footnotes Contributors: References Allen D. Shame and internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality , 37 3 , 33— An empirical investigation. Health Services Research , 26 6 , — Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec Canada.
Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men. American Journal of Mens Health , 4 3 , — Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research.
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New York, NY: Guilford Publications. Performative family: Homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China. British Journal of Sociology , 67 2 , — Post-colonial Tongzhi. Hong Kong: Tongzhi Institute in Hong Kong. The short internalized homonegativity scale: Examination of the factorial structure of a new measure of internalized homophobia.
Wellness in adult gay males: Examining the impact of internalized homophobia, self-disclosure, and self-disclosure to parents. Internalized homophobia and psychosexual adjustment among gay men. Psychological Report , 75 1 Pt 1 , 23— The making of autobiographical memory: Intersections of culture, narratives and identity.
International Journal of Psychology , 46 5 , — Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the internalized homophobia scale. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 35 5 , — Religious attitudes, internalized homophobia, and identity in gay and lesbian adults. Gay men from heterosexual marriages: Attitudes, behaviors, childhood experiences, and reasons for marriage.
Journal of Homosexuality , 42 4 , 15— LGB identity among young Chinese: The influence of traditional culture. Journal of Homosexuality , 60 5 , — Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations Vol. Noras on the road: Family and marriage of lesbian women in Shanghai. Journal of Lesbian Studies , 10 3—4 , 87— Contributions to indigenous and cultural psychology.
Two gay men seeking two lesbians: Case study: Treatment of homophobia in a gay male adolescent. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 52 2 , — Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality , 7 2—3 , 59— The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men.
Journal of Homosexuality , 41 2 , 53— Assessment of stigma towards homosexuality in China: A study of men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 37 5 , — Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review , 30 8 , — Poteat T. Bandeenroche K. German D.
10 great gay films from east and south-east Asia
Nguyen Y. The internalized homophobia scale for Vietnamese sexual minority women: Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 45 6 , — Parallel analysis engine to aid determining number of factors to retain [Computer software]. Retrieved from http: Spirituality and community in times of crisis: Encountering spirituality in indigenous trauma therapy. After years of suffering from depression, he killed himself in East Palace, West Palace Power play is a major theme of this intense drama, in which a gay man is apprehended while cruising in a park and spends the night in a police station under the stern eye of the arresting officer.
As the detainee tells the disapproving cop about his tumultuous life, it becomes clear he is subtly trying to seduce the masculine policeman. When the officer releases the gay man from custody, he refuses to leave, and things takes turn for the twisted. Jean Genet would have loved it. This is one of the coolest gay films ever made, a vivid and exhilarating depiction of two men from Hong Kong — Lai Tony Leung and Ho Leslie Cheung — in an intense on-again-off-again relationship, who travel to Argentina to visit Iguazu Falls, but end up repeating the cycle of infidelity and cruelty.
After yet another break-up, Lai meets the handsome and possibly gay Chang, whose friendship jolts Lai into facing up to his responsibilities, and offers a chance of happiness and redemption. Happy Together , which won him the best director award at Cannes, is one of his best, with a terrific central performance from Leung as a young, insecure man yearning for romance. As so often with Wong Kar-wai, the last shot, accompanied by a brassy cover of the title song, is unforgettable.
Gohatto In 19th-century Japan, a young and beautiful swordsman Ryuhei Matsuda joins a group of samurai. Although homosexuality is forbidden, he immediately arouses the attention of his fellow warriors, including the stern vice-commander Takeshi Kitano.
Sexual jealousy inevitably rears its head, and violence ensues. Unorthodox erotic obsession permeates the best-known works of Nagisa Oshima , notably the ultra-controversial Ai no corrida , with its graphic scenes of unsimulated sex, and the homoerotic atmosphere of the prison camp in Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence The last scene, set by a lake, is incredibly beautiful. Tokyo Godfathers Either way, Hana is a fantastic character, who dreams of bringing up a baby and shows the most kindness of the threesome.
The bond between the three is seemingly unbreakable, and together they form the tightest of units, reinventing the concept of family. A queer fairytale. Director Apichatpong Weerasethakul. Tropical Malady Homosexual themes suffuse much of his work Weerasethakul is gay himself , manifesting as out and out camp in the outrageous The Adventure of Iron Pussy But best of all is Tropical Malady , one of the most mesmerising and surreal gay love stories ever told.
A soldier and a country boy fall for each other and pay regular visits to the Thai jungle. So far, so unremarkable. Then one of the men is spirited away and the narrative whirls into a different world. The soldier appears to be on the trail of an apparently shape-shifting entity which may or may not be his departed lover.
The Blossoming of Maximo Oliveros Young Maximo, whose family make their living through petty thievery, lives in a poor area of Manila. Nathan Lopez gives a wonderfully guileless performance as Maximo, who grows from the dizzy kid dressing up as Miss World at the start of the film to the mature adolescent who walks off to a brave new future at the end, in a knowing nod to The Third Man In his first feature made in Malaysia his previous work was filmed in Taiwan , Ming-liang regular Lee Kang-sheng stars in two roles — as a comatose man cared for by a woman, and as a migrant worker in Kuala Lumpur who is beaten up and cared for by a gay Bangladeshi man.
The latter falls for his patient, despite their different languages. Soundless Wind Chime In this globe-trotting semi-autobiographical debut feature from Kit Hung, Ricky, a delivery boy working in Hong Kong, falls in love with petty thief Pascal Bernhard Bulling , who pinches his wallet.
The political ideologies, philosophies, and religions of ancient China regarded homosexual relationships as a normal facet of life, and in some cases, promoted homosexual relationships as exemplary. All the gentlemen and officials esteemed it. All men in the realm followed this fashion to the extent that husbands and wives were estranged.
Resentful unmarried women became jealous. Confucianism , being primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual. However, the ideology did emphasize male friendships, and Louis Crompton has argued that the "closeness of the master-disciple bond it fostered may have subtly facilitated homosexuality".
In a similar way to Buddhism, Taoist schools sought throughout history to define what would be sexual misconduct. The precept against Sexual Misconduct is sex outside your marriage. Opposition to homosexuality in China rose in the medieval Tang Dynasty , being attributed by some writers to the influence of Christian and Islamic values,  but did not become fully established until the late Qing Dynasty and the Chinese Republic. The earliest law against a homosexual act dates from the Song Dynasty , punishing "young males who act as prostitutes.
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Contemporary Chinese Experimental Fiction , said "a clear-cut dichotomy between heterosexuality and homosexuality did not exist in traditional China. Same-gender love can sometimes be difficult to differentiate in Classical Chinese because the pronouns he and she were not distinguished. And like many East and Southeast Asian languages, Chinese does not have grammatical gender. Thus, poems such as Tang Dynasty poems and other Chinese poetry may be read as either heterosexual or homosexual, or neutral in that regard, depending on the reader's desire.
Another complication in trying to separate heterosexual and homosexual themes in Chinese literature is that for most of Chinese history, writing was restricted to a cultivated elite , amongst whom blatant discussion of sex was considered vulgar. Until adopting European values late in their history, the Chinese did not even have nouns to describe a heterosexual or homosexual person per se. Rather, people who might be directly labeled as such in other traditions would be described by veiled allusions to the actions they enjoyed, or, more often, by referring to a famous example from the past.
This manuscript sought to present the "supreme joy" sex in every form known to the author; the chapter on homosexuality comes between chapters on sex in Buddhist monasteries and sex between peasants. It is the earliest surviving manuscript to mention homosexuality, but it does so through phrases such as "cut sleeves in the imperial palace", "countenances of linked jade", and "they were like Lord Long Yang ", phrases which would not be recognizable as speaking of sexuality of any kind to someone who was not familiar with the literary tradition.
While these conventions make explicit mentions of homosexuality rare in Chinese literature in comparison to the Greek or Japanese traditions, the allusions which do exist are given an exalted air by their frequent comparison to former Golden Ages and imperial favorites. The ruler is nonplussed at first, but Zhuang justifies his suggestion through allusion to a legendary homosexual figure and then recites a poem in that figure's honor. A remarkable aspect of traditional Chinese literature is the prominence of same-gender friendship.
Bai Juyi is one of many writers who wrote dreamy, lyrical poems to male friends about shared experiences. He and fellow scholar-bureaucrat Yuan Zhen made plans to retire together as Taoist recluses once they had saved enough funds, but Yuan's death kept that dream from being fulfilled. Other works depict less platonic relationships. There is a tradition of clearly erotic literature , which is less known. It is supposed that most such works have been purged in the periodic book burnings that have been a feature of Chinese history.
Purpose of Study and Hypothesis
However, isolated manuscripts have survived. The first short story, Chronicle of a Loyal Love , involves a twenty-year-old academician chasing a fifteen-year-old scholar and a bevy of adolescent valets. The work appeared in a single edition some time between and More recently, Ding Ling , an author of the s in China, was a prominent and controversial feminist author, and it is generally agreed that she had lesbian or at least bisexual content in her stories.
Her most famous piece is " Miss Sophia's Diary ", a seminal work in the development of a voice for women's sexuality and sexual desire. Author Pai Hsien-yung created a sensation by coming out of the closet in Taiwan, and by writing about gay life in Taipei in the s and 70s. Same-sex love was also celebrated in Chinese art, many examples of which have survived the various traumatic political events in recent Chinese history. Though no large statues are known to still exist, many hand scrolls and paintings on silk can be found in private collections . Gay identities and communities have expanded in China since the s as a result of resurfacing dialogue about and engagement with queer identities in the public domain.
While lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT culture remains largely underground, there are a plethora of gay cruising zones and often unadvertised gay bars, restaurants and discos spread across the country. The recent and escalating proliferation of gay identity in mainland China is most significantly signaled by its recognition in mainstream media despite China's media censorship.
There are also many gay websites and LGBT organisations which help organise gay rights' campaigns, AIDS prevention efforts, film festivals and pride parades. Yet public discourse on the issue remains fraught - a product of competing ideologies surrounding the body; the morality of its agency in the public and private arena. Like in many other western and non-western societies, public sentiment on homosexuality in China sits within a liminal space. While it is not outright condemned, neither is it fully accepted as being part of the social norm.
In many instances, those who associate with the queer community also associate with another marginalised group, such as rural-to-urban migrants and sex workers, and therefore the stigma that is attached to aspects of queer identity is often a manifestation of perceived social disobedience against different intersecting vectors of 'moral rights'. As Elaine Jeffreys and Haiqing Yu note in their book, Sex in China, individuals who interact within the queer community do not necessarily identify as being homosexual.
Their minority status is imbued with aspects of criminality and poverty.
This suggests that the 'perverseness' attached to homosexuality in mainland China is not purely informed by a biological discourse, but, depending on the circumstances, can also be informed by accepted notions of cultural and social legitimacy. The influence of Western gay and lesbian culture on China's culture is complex. While Western ideas and conceptions of gayness have begun to permeate the Chinese gay and lesbian identity, some Chinese gay and lesbian activists have pushed back against the mainstream politics of asserting one's own identity and pushing for social change due to its disruption of "family ties and social harmony.
Justice Anthony Kennedy quoted Confucius in his majority ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges  leading to discussion of the ruling on Sina Weibo. In , a male couple held a symbolic wedding in public and China Daily took the photo of the two men in a passionate embrace across its pages.